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Each jewel includes two punches: :
|The hallmark: It is the manufacturer of the punch. (diamond or oval for French manufacturing for foreign productions)|
|The hallmark: It is the stamp of the State, must be affixed in the case where the unit weight is:|
- Greater than 3 grams for Gold
- 30 grams for Silver
They allow to recognize a gem quality and ensure a title to the buyer. It is mandatory since the Middle Ages but evolved after the French Revolution.
There are several types of guarantees, metal punches:
An Eagle Head for Gold 750/1000 ° (18K) and Pure Gold is 1000/1000 ° (24K).
A clover for Alloy Gold 375/1000 ° (9 carats). The word "alloy" is mandatory in transactions.
A Head of Minerva (goddess, protector of Rome and patron of craftsmen) for Silver 925/1000 °.
The letter V for vermeil, which is a substrate of silver 925/1000 ° plated at least 5 microns Gold 750/1000 °