Each jewel includes two punches: :

poinconThe hallmark: It is the manufacturer of the punch. (diamond or oval for French manufacturing for foreign productions)
POINCONThe hallmark: It is the stamp of the State, must be affixed in the case where the unit weight is:
- Greater than 3 grams for Gold
- 30 grams for Silver

They allow to recognize a gem quality and ensure a title to the buyer. It is mandatory since the Middle Ages but evolved after the French Revolution.

There are several types of guarantees, metal punches:

An Eagle Head for Gold 750/1000 ° (18K) and Pure Gold is 1000/1000 ° (24K). 

aigle

A clover for Alloy Gold 375/1000 ° (9 carats). The word "alloy" is mandatory in transactions.

trefle.jpg

A Head of Minerva (goddess, protector of Rome and patron of craftsmen) for Silver 925/1000 °.

minerve.jpg

The letter V for vermeil, which is a substrate of silver 925/1000 ° plated at least 5 microns Gold 750/1000 °

vermeille.jpg